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PHYSICS GENERAL OBJECTIVES The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Physics is to prepare the candidates for the Board's examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to: (1) sustain their interest in physics; (2) develop attitude relevant to physics that encourage accuracy, precision and objectivity; (3) interpret physical phenomena, laws, definitions, concepts and other theories; (4) demonstrate the ability to solve correctly physics problems using relevant theories and concepts. DETAILED SYLLABUS TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 1. MEASUREMENTS AND UNITS (a)Length area and volume: Metre rule, Venier calipers Micrometer Screw-guage (b)Mass (i) unit of mass (ii) use of simple beam balance (c) Time (i) unit of time (ii) time-measuring devices (d) Fundamental physical quantities (e)Derived physical quantities and their units (i) Combinations of fundamental quantities and determination of their units (f) Dimensions (i) definition of dimensions (ii) simple examples (g)Limitations of experimental measurements (ii) accuracy of measuring instruments (iii) simple estimation of errors. (iv) significant figures. (v) standard form. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. identify the units of length area and volume; ii. use different measuring instruments; iii. determine the lengths, surface areas and volume of regular and irregular bodies; iv. identify the unit of mass; v. use simple beam balance, e.g Buchart's balance and chemical balance; vi. identify the unit of time; vii. use different time-measuring devices; viii. relate the fundamental physical quantities to their units; ix. deduce the units of derived physical quantities; x. Determine the dimensions of physical quantities; xi. use the dimensions to determine the units of physical quantities; xii. test the homogeneity of an equation; xiii. determine the accuracy of measuring instruments: xiv. estimate simple errors; xv. express measurements in standard form. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 2. Scalars and Vectors (i) definition of scalar and vector quantities (ii) examples of scalar and vector quantities (iii) relative velocity (iv) resolution of vectors into two Perpendicular directions including graphical methods of solution. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. distinguish between scalar and vector quantities; ii. give examples of scalar and vector quantities; iii. determine the resultant of two or more vectors; iv. determine relative velocity; v. resolve vectors into two perpendicular components; vi. use graphical methods to solve vector problems; TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 3. Motion (a) Types of motion: translational, oscillatory, rotational, spin and random (b) linear motion (i) speed, velocity and aceleration (ii)equations of uniformly accelerated motion (iii) motion under gravity (iv) distance-time graph and velocity time graph (v) instantaneous velocity and acceleration. (c) Projectiles: (i) calculation of range, maximum height and time of flight (ii)applications of projectile motion (d) Newton's laws of motion: . (i) inertia, mass and force (ii) relationship between mass and acceleration (iii) impulse and momentum (iv) conservation of linear momentum (Coefficient of restitution not necessary) (e) Motion in a circle: (i) angular velocity and angular acceleration (ii)centripetal and centrifugal (f.) Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M.): definition and explanation of simple harmonic motion examples of systems that excutes S.H.M period frequency and amplitude of S.H.M. velocity and acceleration of S.H.M energy change in S.H.M OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to : i. identify different types of motion ; ii. differentiate between speed, velocity and acceleration; iii. deduce equations of uniformly accelerated motion; iv. solve problems of motion under gravity; v. interpret distance-time graph and velocity-time graph; vi. compute instantaneous velocity and acceleration vii. establish expressions for the range, maximum height and time of flight of projectiles; viii. solve problems involving projectile motion; ix. interpret Newton's laws of motion; x. compare inertia, mass and force; xi. deduce the relationship between mass and acceleration; xii. solve numerical problems involving impulse and momentum; xiii. interpret the law of conservation of linear momentum; xiv. establish expression for angular velocity, angular acceleration and centripetal force; applications xv. solve numerical problems involving motion in a circle; xvi. establish the relationship between period and frequency; xvii. analyse the energy changes occurring during S.H.M TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 4. Gravitational field (i.) Newtons Law of universal gravitation (ii.) gravitational potential (iii.) conservative and non conservative fields acceleration due to gravity [g=GM/R] variation of g on the earths surface distinction between mass and weight escape velocity parking orbit and weightlessness Candidate should be able to: Identify the expressions for gravitational force between two bodies Apply Newtons law of universal gravitation; Give examples of conservative and non-conservative and non-conservation fileds; deduce the expression for gravitational field potential. identify the causes of variation of g on the earths surface; differentiate between mass amd weight determine escape velocity TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 5. Equilibrium of Forces equilibrium of a particular equilibrium of coplanar forces triangles and polygon of forces Lamis theorem Principles of moments Momemt of a force Simple treatment and moment of a couple (torgue) application conditions for equilibrium of rigid bodies under the action of parallel and non parallel forces resolution and composition of forces in two perpendicular directions, resultant and equilibrant center of gravity and stability Stable, unstable and neutral equilibrate. OBJECTIVES Candidate must be able to: i.apply the conditions for the equilibrium of coplanar foirce to solve problems; ii.use triangle and polygon laws of forces to solve equilibrium problems iii.use Lamis theorem to solve problems iv.analyse the principle of moment of a force v.determine moment of a force and couple vi.describe some applications of moment of a force and couple. vii.apply the conditions for the equilibrium of rigid bodies to solve problems viii.resolve forces into two perpendicular directions; ix.determine the resultant and equilibrium of forces x.differentiate between stable, unstable and neutral equilibrium TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 6. Work Energy and Power (i) definition of work, energy and power (ii) forms of energy (iii) conservation of energy (iv) qualitative treatment between different forms of energy (v) interpretation of area under the force-distance curve OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i differentiate between work, energy and power; ii. compare different forms of energy, giving examples; iii. apply the principle of conservation of energy; iv. examine the transformation between different forms of energy;. v. interpret the area under the force -distance curve. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 7.Friction (i) static and dynamic friction (ii) coefficient of limiting friction and its determination. (iii) advantages and disadvantages of friction (iv) reduction of friction qualitative treatment of viscosity and terminal viscosity. stoke's law OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. differentiate between static and dynamic friction ii. determine the coefficient of limiting friction; iii. compare the advantages and disadvantage of friction; iv. suggest ways by which friction can be reduced; v. analyse factors that affect viscosity and terminal velocity; vi. apply stoke's law. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 8.Simple Machines (i) definition of machine (ii) types of machines (iii) mechanical advantage,velocity ratio and efficiency of machines OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. identify different types of machines; ii. solve problems involving simple machines. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 9.Elasticity . (i) elastic limit, yield point, breaking point, Hooke's law and Young's modulus (ii) the spring balance as a device for measuring force (iii) work done in springs and elastic Strings OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. interpret force-extension curves; . ii. interpret Hooke's law and Young's modulus of a material; , iii use spring balance to measure force; iv. determine the work done in spring and elastic strings TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 10.Pressure (a) Atmospheric Pressure (i) definition of atmospheric pressure (ii) units of pressure (S.I) units (iii) measurement of pressure (iv) simple mercury.baromcter,aneroid barometer and manometer. (v) variation of pressure with height (vi) the use of barometer as an altimeter. (b) Pressure in liquids (i) the relationship between pressure, depth and density (P = pgh) (ii) transmission of pressure in liquids (Pascal's Principle) (iii) application OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. recognize the S.I units of pressure; ii. identify pressure measuring instruments; iii. relate the variation of pressure to height; iv. use a barometer as an altimeter. v. determine the relationship between pressure, depth and density; vi. apply the principle of transmission of pressure in liquids to solve problems; vii. determine the application of pressure in liquid; TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 11.Liquids At Rest (i) determination of density of solid and liquids (ii) definition of relative density (iii)upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid (iv)Archimede's principle and law of floatation and applications, e.g. ships and hydrometers. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. distinguish between density and relative density of substances; ii. determine the upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid iii. apply Archimedes' principle and law of floatation to solve problems TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 12.Temperature and Its Measurement (i) concept of temperature (ii) thermometric properties (iii)calibration of thermometers (iv) temperature scales Celsius and Kelvin. (v) types of thermometers (vi) conversion from one scale of temperature to another OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. identify thermometric properties of materials that'are used for different thermometers; ii. calibrate thermometers; iii. differentiate between temperature scales e.g Clesius and Kelvin. iv. compare the types of thermometers; vi. convert from one scale of temperature to another. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 13. Thermal Expansion (a) Solids (i) definition and determination of linear, volume and area expansivities (ii) effects and applications, e.g. expansion in building strips and railway lines (vi) relationship between different expansivities (b) Liquids (i) volume expansivity (ii) real and apparent expansivities (iii) determination of volume expansivity (iv) anomalous expansion of water OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. determine linear and volume expansivities; ii. assess the effects and applications of thermal expansivities iii. determine the relationship between different expansivities. iv. determine volume, apparent, and real expansivities of liquids; v. analyse the anomalous expansion of water. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 14.Gas Laws (i) Boyle's law (PV = constant) (ii) Charle's law ( V/P = constant) (iii) Pressure law ( P/T = constant) (iv) Absolute zero of temperature (v) General gas equation ( PV /T= constant) (vi) Ideal gas equation (Pv=n RT) OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. interpret the gas laws; ii. use expression of these laws to solve numerical problems. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 15.Quantity of Heat (i) heat as a form of energy (ii) definition of heat capacity and specific heat capacity of solids and liquids (iii) determination of heat capacity and specific heat capacity of substances by simple methods e.g method of mixtures and electrical method OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. differentiate between heat capacity and specific heat capacity; ii. determine heat capacity and specific heat capacity using simple methods; iii. examine some numerical problems. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 16.Change of State (i) latent heat (ii) specific latent heats of fusion and vaporization; (iii) melting, evaporation and boiling (iv) the influence of pressure and of dissolved substances on boiling and melting points. (v) application in appliances OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. differentiate between latent heat and specific latent heats of fusion and vaporization; ii. differentiate between melting, evaporation and boiling; iii. examine the effects of pressure and of dissolved substance on boiling and melting points. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 17.Vapours (i) unsaturated and saturated vapours (ii) relationship between saturated vapour pressure (S.V.P) and boiling (iii) determination of S.V.P by barometer tube method (iv) formation of dew, mist, fog, and rain (v) study of dew point, humidity and relative humidity (vi) hygrometry; estimation of the humidity of the atmosphere using wet and dry bulb hydrometers. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. distinguish between saturated and unsaturated vapours; ii. relate saturated vapour pressure to boiling point; iii. determine S.V.P by barometer tube method iv. differentiate between dew point, humidity and relative humidity; v estimate the humidity of the atmosphere using wet and dry bulb hydrometers. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 18.Structure of Matter and Kinetic Theory (a) Molecular nature of matter (i) atoms and molecules (ii) molecular theory: explanation of Brownian motion, diffusion, surface tension, capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angles of contact (iii) examples and applications. (b)Kinetic Theory (i) assumptions of the kinetic theory (ii) using the theory to explain the pressure exerted by gas, Boyle's OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. differentiate between atoms and molecules; ii. use molecular theory to explain Brownian motion, diffusion, surface, tension, capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angle of contact; iii. examine the assumptions of kinetic theory; interpret kinetic theory, the pressure exerted by gases Boyles law, Charles law melting, boiling vaporization, change in temperature, evaporation, etc TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 19. Heat Transfer Condition, convetion and radiation as modes of heat transfer Temperature gradient, thermal conductivity and heat flux Effect of the nature of the surface on the energy radiated and absorbed by it. The conductivites of common materials The thrmos flask Land and sea breeze OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. differentiate between conduction , convention and radiation as modes of heart transfer; ii. determine temperature gradient, thermal conductivity and heat flux iii. assess the effect of the nature of the surface on the energy radiated and absorbed by it; iv. compare the conductivities of commonmaterials v. relate the component part of the working of the thermo flask; vi. different between land and sea breeze. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 20. Waves Production and propagation Wave motion Vibrating systems as source of waves Waves as mode of energy transfer distinction between particle motion and wave motion relationship between frequency wavelength and wave velocity (v=f?) phase difference progressive wave equation e.g y=A sin (2 p(vt+x))/? Classification Types of waves; mechanical and electromagnetic waves Longitudinal and transverse waves Stationery and progressive waves Examples of waves from springs, ropes, stretched strings and the ripple tank. Chracteristics/Properties Reflection, refractions, diffraction and plane Polarization Superposition of waves e.g interference OBJECTIVES Candidate should be a ble to i. Interpret wave motion ii. Identify vibrating systems as sources of waves iii. Use waves as a mode of energy transfer; iv. Distinguish between particle motion and wave motion v. Relate frequency and wave length to wave velocity vi. Determine phase difference vii. Use the progressive wave equation to compute basic wave parameters viii. Differentiate between mechanical and electromagnetic waves. ix. Differentiate between longitudinal and transverse waves. x. Distinguish between stationary and progressive waves xi. Indicate the example of waves generated from springs, ropes, stretched strings and the ripple tank; xii. Differenctiate between reflection, refraction, diffraction and plane polarization of waves. xiii. Analyse the principle of superposition of waves. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 21. Propagation of sound waves the necessity for a material medium speed of sound in solids, liquids and air; reflection of sound; echoes, reverberation and their applications disadvantages of echoes and reverberations OBJECTIVES Candidate should be able to: i. determine the need for a metrial medium in the propagation of sound waves ii. compare the speed of sound in solids liquid and air iii. relate the effects of temperature and pressure to the speed of sound in air solve problem on echoes, reverberation iv.compare the disadvantages and echoes TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 22. Characteristics of sound waves (i) noise and musical notes (ii) quality, pitch, intensity application and loudness and their application to musical instruments (iii)simple treatment of overtones produced by vibrating strings and their coloumns [F=L/2Lv(T/M)] acoustic examples of resonance frequency of a note emitted by air columns in closed and open pipes in relation to their lengths. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 23. Light Energy Source of Light: Natural and artificial source of light Luminous and non-luminous objects Propagation of light Speed frequency and wavelength of light (ii) Formation of shadows and eclipse The pin-hole camera OBJECTIVES Candidate should be able to: i. Compare the natural and artificial sources of light ii.Differentiate between luminous and non luminous object iii. Relate the speed, frequency and wavelength of light. iv. Interpret the formation of shadows and eclipse v. Solve problems using the principle of operation of a pin-hole camera TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 24. Reflection of light a Plane and curved surfaces (i) laws of reflection (ii) application of reflection of light (iii) Formation of images by plane concave and convex mirrors and ray diagrams (iv) use of the mirror formula [1/f=(1/u)+(1/v) (v) Linear magnification OBEJCTIVES Candidates should be able to i. Interpret the laws of reflection ii. Illustrate the formation of images by plane, concave and convex mirros: iii. Apply the mirror formula to solve optical problems; iv. Determine the linear magnification v. Apply the laws of reflection of light to the working of periscope, kaleidoscope and the sextant. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 25. Refraction of light through (a)Plane and Curved Surface (i) explanation of refraction in terms of velocity of light in the media (ii) laws of refraction (iii) definition of refraction index of a medium (iv) determination of refraction index of glass and liquid using Snells law (v) real and apparent depth and lateral displacement (vI) critical angle and total internal reflection (b) Glass Prism Use of the minimum deviation formula U=(sin((A+D)/2))/sin(A/2) Type of lenses Use of formula 1/f = (1/u) + (1/v) magnification OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. interpret the laws of refelction ; ii. determine the refractive index of glass and liquid using Snells law; iii.determine the refractive index using the principle of real and apparent depth iv. determine the conditions necessary for total internal refelction; v. examine the use of periscope, prism, binoculars, optical fibre. vi.Apply the principles of total internal reflection to the formula of mirage vii. Use of lens formula and ray diagrams to solve optical numerical problems viii.Determine the magnification of an image ix.Calculate the refractive index of a glass prism suing minimum deviation formula TOPIC/CONTENT/NOTEs 26. Optical Instruments (i) the principles of miscroscopes, telescopes, projections, cameras and the human eye (physiological details of the eye are not required) (ii) power of a lens (iii) Angular magnification (iv) site defects and their corrections OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to i. apply the principles of operation of optical instruments to solve problems ii.distinguish between the human eye and the cameras iii. calculate the power of a lens iv. determine the angular magnification of optical instruments v. determine the near and far points vi. detect sight defects and their corrections. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 27 (a) dispersion of light and colours Dispersion of white light by a triangular prism Production of pure spectrum Colour mixing by addition and subtraction Colour of objects abd colour filters. (b) electromagnetic spectrum (i) description of sources and uses of various types of radiation OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to i. Relate the expression for gravitational force between two bodies ii. Apply Newtons laws of universal gravitation iii. Identify primary colours and obtain secondary colour by mixing. iv. Deduces why objects have colours v. Analyse colours using colour filters vi. Analayse the electromagnetic spectrum in relation to their wavelengths, sources, detection and uses. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 28. Electrostatics (i) existence of ositive and negative charges in matter (ii) charging a body by friction, contact and induction (iii) electroscope (iv) Coulombs inverse square law electric field and potential Electric field and potential OBJECTIVES Candidate should be able to: i. Identify charges ii. Examine uses of an electronscope iii.apply coulombs square law of electrostatic to solve problems iv. deduce expression for electric field and potential v. identify electric field flux patterns of isolated and interacting charges vi. analyze the distribution of charges on a conductor and how it is used I lightening conductors. Conductor and how it is used in lightening conductors TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 29. Capacitors Functions of capacitors Parallel plate capacitors Capacitance of a capacitors The relationship between capacitance, area separation of plates and medium between the plates [C=3A/d] Capacitors in series and parallel Energy stored in a capacitor OBJECTIVES Candidate should be able to: i. determine uses of capacitors ii. analyse parallel plate capacitors iii. determine the capacitance of a capacitor iv. analyse the factors that affect the capacitance of a capacitor v. solve problems involving the arrangement of capacitor vi. determine the energy stored in capacitors TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 30. Electric Cells (i) simple voltaic cell and its defects; (ii) Daniel cell, Leclanche cell (wet and dry) (iii) lead acid accumulator and Nickel Iron (Nife) Lithium Ion and Mercury cadmium (iv) maintenance of cells and batteries (detail treatment of the chemistry of a cell is not required (v) arrangement of cell OBJECTIVES Candidate should be able to: i. identify the defects of the simple voltaic cell and their corrected; ii. compare different types of cells including solar cell iii. compare the advantages of lead-acid and Nikel iron accuulator iv. citance of a capacitor v. solve problems involving series and parallel combination of cells TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 31. Current Electricity (i) electromagnetic force (emf), potential difference (p.d.), current, internal resistance of a cell and lost volt (ii) Ohms law (iii) measurement of resistance (iv) meter bridge (v) resistance in series and in parallel and their combination the potentiometer method of measuring emf, current and internal resistance of a cell. OBJECTIVES Candidate should be able to: i. differentiate between emf p.d current and internal resistance of a cell. ii. apply ohms law to solve problems iii. Use meter bridge to calculate resistance iv. Compute effective total resistance of both parallel and series arrangement of resistors v. determine the resistivity and the conductivity of a conductor vi. measure emf current and internal resistance of a cell using the potentiometer. 32.Electrical Energy and Power (i) concepts of electrical energy and power (ii) commercial unit of electric energy and power (iii) electric power transmission (iv) heating effects of electric current. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. apply the expressions of electrical energy and power to solve problems; ii. analyse how power is transmitted from the power station to the consumer; iii. identify the heating effects, of current and its uses. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 33.Magnets and Magnetic Fields (i) natural and artificial magnets (ii) magnetic properties of soft iron and steel (iii) methods of making magnets and demagnetization (iv) concept of magnetic field (v) magnetic field of a permanent magnet (vi) magnetic field round a straight current carrying conductor, circular wire and solenoid (vii) properties of the earth's magnetic Meld; north and south poles, magnetic meridian and angle of dip and declination (viii) flux and flux density (ix) variation of magnetic field intensity over the earth's surface (x) applications: earth's magnetic field in navigation and mineral exploration. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. give examples of natural and artificial magnets ii. differentiate between the magnetic properties of soft iron and steel; iii. identify the various methods of making magnets and demagnetizing magnets; iv. describe how to keep a magnet from losing its magnetism; v. determine the flux pattern exhibited when two magnets are placed together pole to pole; vi. determine the flux of a current carrying conductor, circular wire and solenoid including the polarity of the solenoid; vii. determine the flux pattern of magnetic placed in the earth's magnetic fields; viii. identify the magnetic elements of the earth's flux; ix. determine the variation of earth's magnetic field on the earth's surface; x. examine the applications of the earth's magnetic field. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 34.Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field quantitative treatment of force between two parallel current carrying conductors. Force on a charge moving in a magnetic field The dc motor Electromagnets Carbon microphone Moving coil and moving iron instruments Conversion of galvanometers to ammeters and voltmeter using shunts and multipliers OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. determine the direction of force on a current carrying conductor using Flemings left-hand rule: ii. interpret the attractive and repulsive forces between two parallel current carrying conductors using diagrams: iii. determine the relationship between the force, magnetif field strength, velocity and the angle though which the charge enters the field iv. interpret the working of the d. c. motor v. analyse the principle of electromagnets give examples of its application vi.compare moving iron and moving coil instruments vii. converts a galvanometer into an ammeter or a voltmeter TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 35. (a) Electromagnetic Induction Faradays law of electromagnetic induction Factors affecting induced emf Lenzs law as an illustration of the principle of conservation of energy A.c and d.c generators Transformers The induction coil (b) Inductance i. Explanation of inductance ii. Unit of inductor iii. Energy stored ina n inductance E= 1I2 L/2 iv. Application/uses of inductors c.Eddy Current i. reduction of eddy current ii. application of eddy current OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. interpret the laws of electromagnetic induction ii. identify the factors affecting induced emf; iii. recognize how Lenz law illustrates the principle of conservation of energy iv. interpret the diagrammatic setup of A.C. generators; v. indentify the types of transformer vi. examine principles of operation of transformers vii. assess the functions of an induction coil viii. draw some conclusions from the principles of operation of an induction coil ix. interpret the inductance of an inductor x. recognize units of inductance of an inductor xi. calculate the effective total inductance in series and parallel arrangement. xii. deduce the expression for the energy stored in an inductor; xiii. examine the applications of inductors xiv. describe the method by which eddy current losses can be reduced. xv. determine the ways by which eddy current can be used. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 36. Simple A.C. Circuits i. Explanation of a.c current and voltage ii. Peak and r.m.s values iii. A.C. sources connected to a resistor iv. A.C. sources connected to a capacitor-capacitive reactance v. A.C. sources connected to an inductor-inductive reactance vi. Series R-L-C circuits vii. Vector diagram viii. Reactance and impedance of alternative quantities ix. Effective voltage in an R-L-C circuits x. Resonance and resonance frequency [F0 =1/(2pvLC) OBJECTIVES Candidate should be able to i. identify A.C. current of and d. d. voltage ii. differentiate between the peak and r.m.s. values of a.c iii. determine the phase difference between current and voltage iv. nterpret series R-L-C circuit v. analyse vector diagrams vi. calculate the effective voltage reactance and impedance vii. recognize the condition by which the circuit is at resonance viii. determine the resonant frequency of R-L-C arrangement ix. determine the instantaneous power, average power and the power factor in a circuit. 37. Conduction of Electricity through liquid (a) liquids (i) electrolytes and non electrolytes (ii) concept of electrolysis (iii) Faradays law of electroysis (iv) application of electrolysis e.g electroplating, calibration of ammeter etc. (b) gases (i) discharges through gases(quantitative treatment only) (ii) application of conduction of electricity through gases OBJECTIVES Candidate should be able to i. distinguish between electrolytes and non-electrolytes ii. analyse the processes of electrolytes iii. apply faradays laws of electrolysis to solve problems iv. analyse discharge through gases v. determine some applications/uses of conduction of electricity through gases. TOPIC/COMMENT/NOTES 38. Elementary Modern Physics (i) models of the atom and their limitations (ii) elementary structure of the atom (iii) energy level and spectra (iv) thermionic and photoelectric emissions (v) einsteins equation and stopping potential (vi) applications of thermionic emissions and photoelectric effects (vii) simple method of production of x-rays (viii) properties and applications of alpha, beta and gamma rays. (xiii) halflife and decay constant (xiv) simple ideas of production energy by fission (xv) binding energy, mass defect and Einteins Energy equation[?E=?Mc^2 (xvi) wave-particle paradox (duality of matter) (xvii) electron diffraction (xviii) the uncertainty principle OBJECTIVES Candidate should be able to i. identify the models of the atom and write their limitation ii. describe elementary structure of the atom iii. differentiate between the energy levels and spectra of atom iv. compare thermionic emission and photoelectric effects v. apply Einsteins equation to solve problems of photoelectric effect vi. calculate the stopping potential vii. relate some application of thermionic emission and photoelectric effects viii. interpret the process involved in the production of x-rays ix. identify come properties and application of x-rays x. analyse elementary radioactivity. xi. distinguish between stable and unstable nuclei xii. Identify isotopes of an element xiii. compare the properties of alpha beta and gamma rays xiv. relate half life and decay constant of a radioactive element xv. determine the binding energy, mass defect and Einsteinss energy equation xvi. analyse wave particle duality xvii. Solve some numerical problems based on the uncertainty principle TOPIC/COMMENT/NOTES 39. Introductory Electronics (i) distinguish between metals semi conductors and insulators(elementary knowledge of band gap is required) (ii) intrinsic and extrinsic semi conductor (iii)uses of semiconductors and diodes in rectification and transistors in amplification. (iv) n-type and p-type semi-conductors (v) elementary knowledge of diode and transistors (vi) use of semiconductors and diodes in rectification and transistors in amplification OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to i. differentiate between conducturs, semi conductors and insulators ii. distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors iii.distinguish between electron and hole carrier iv. distinguish between n-type and p-type semi-conductor vi. analyse diodes to rectification and transistor to amplification Physics RECOMMENDED TEXTS 1.Okeke, P. N and Anyakoha, M. W (2000) Senior Secondary School Physics, Lagos: Pacific Printers 2.Olumuyionwa A. and Ogunkoya O. O (1992) Comprehensive Certificate Physics,Ibadan: University Press Pic. Ike, E. E (2006) Essential Principles of Physics, Aba Enic Publishers Ike, E. E (2005) Numerical Problems and Solutions in Physics, F = Ma Enic Publishers, Aba 5.Ike, E. E. (2009) Introductory University Physics Enic Publishers, Jos 6.Abbott, A. F. Principle of Physics (Fifth Edition) Heinemann Educational Publishere Halley Court, Jordan Education Limited. 7. Anyakoha M. W. (2010) New School Pyhsics for Senior Secondary Schools (Third Edition) Africana First Publishers Pic

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The results of the 2023 JAMB mock exam have finally been released. Candidates who took part in th...

Many 2023 UTME candidates who participated in the JAMB Mock exam and even those who did not partici...

The 2023 JAMB mock exam seems to have gone relatively well going by the updates we received so far ...

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STUDYING ABROAD WITH PARTIAL SCHOLARSHIP HELPS

If a school was to give an average student whose financial situation is poor a partial scholarship w...

MISTAKEN PROFILE REGISTRATION

Someone mistakenly registered with another's name, local govt,email, phone no , what can be done please

HOW TO STUDY AND UNDERSTAND CHEMISTRY FOR JAMB UTM...

If chemistry is your most difficult subject, then always study it before all other subjects. You mus...

FULL SUMMARY OF IN DEPENDENCE JAMB NEW BOOK FOR 20...

Full Summary of "In Dependence" JAMB New Book For 2017 UTME Candidates.
In Dependence"JAMB New Bo...

INDEPENDANCE JAMB NOVEL 2017

We want u to help us with the summary of in dependence 2017 jamb novel pls

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