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```PHYSICS
GENERAL OBJECTIVES
The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Physics is to prepare the candidates for the Board's examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:
(1) sustain their interest in physics;
(2) develop attitude relevant to physics that encourage accuracy, precision and objectivity;
(3) interpret physical phenomena, laws, definitions, concepts and other theories;
(4) demonstrate the ability to solve correctly physics problems using relevant theories and concepts.

DETAILED SYLLABUS
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
1.    MEASUREMENTS AND UNITS

(a)Length area and volume:
Metre rule, Venier calipers
Micrometer Screw-guage

(b)Mass
(i) unit of mass
(ii) use of simple beam balance

(c)  Time
(i) unit of time
(ii) time-measuring devices

(d)  Fundamental physical quantities

(e)Derived physical quantities and their units
(i)  Combinations of fundamental quantities and determination of
their units

(f)  Dimensions
(i) definition of dimensions
(ii) simple examples

(g)Limitations of experimental measurements

(ii)  accuracy of measuring instruments
(iii)  simple estimation of errors.
(iv)  significant figures.
(v)  standard form.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i.   identify the units of length area and volume;
ii.  use different measuring instruments;
iii. determine the lengths, surface areas and volume of regular and irregular bodies;
iv.  identify the unit of mass;
v.  use   simple   beam   balance, e.g Buchart's   balance   and  chemical  balance;
vi.  identify the unit of time;
vii. use different  time-measuring  devices;
viii. relate   the   fundamental physical quantities to their units;
ix.  deduce the units of derived physical quantities;
x.   Determine the dimensions of physical quantities;
xi.   use the dimensions to determine the units of physical quantities;
xii.  test the homogeneity of an equation;
xiii. determine the accuracy of measuring instruments:
xiv.  estimate simple errors;
xv.  express measurements in standard form.
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
2.    Scalars and Vectors
(i)  definition of scalar and vector quantities
(ii)  examples of scalar and vector quantities
(iii)  relative velocity
(iv)  resolution of vectors into two Perpendicular directions including graphical methods of solution.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i.    distinguish between scalar and vector quantities;
ii.   give examples of scalar and vector quantities;
iii.  determine the resultant of two or more vectors;
iv.  determine relative velocity;
v.   resolve vectors into two perpendicular components;
vi.  use graphical methods to solve vector problems;
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
3.    Motion

(a)  Types of motion: translational, oscillatory, rotational, spin and random
(b)  linear motion
(i) speed, velocity and aceleration
(ii)equations  of uniformly accelerated motion
(iii) motion under gravity
(iv) distance-time graph and velocity time graph
(v) instantaneous velocity and acceleration.
(c)  Projectiles:
(i) calculation of range, maximum height and time of flight
(ii)applications of projectile motion
(d)  Newton's laws of motion: .
(i) inertia, mass and force
(ii) relationship between mass and acceleration
(iii) impulse and momentum
(iv) conservation of linear momentum (Coefficient of restitution not necessary)

(e)  Motion in a circle:
(i) angular velocity and angular acceleration
(ii)centripetal and centrifugal

(f.) Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M.):
definition and explanation of simple harmonic motion
examples of systems that excutes S.H.M
period frequency and amplitude of S.H.M.
velocity and acceleration of S.H.M
energy change in S.H.M

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to :

i.   identify different types of motion ;
ii.  differentiate between speed, velocity and acceleration;
iii.  deduce equations of uniformly  accelerated motion;
iv.  solve problems of motion under gravity;
v.   interpret distance-time graph and velocity-time graph;
vi.   compute instantaneous velocity and acceleration
vii.  establish expressions for the range, maximum height and time of flight of projectiles;
viii.  solve problems involving projectile motion;
ix.   interpret Newton's laws of motion;
x.   compare inertia, mass and force;
xi.   deduce the relationship between mass and acceleration;
xii.   solve numerical problems involving impulse and momentum;
xiii.   interpret the law of conservation of linear momentum;
xiv.   establish expression for  angular velocity, angular
acceleration and centripetal force; applications
xv. solve numerical problems involving motion in a circle;
xvi. establish the relationship between period and frequency;
xvii. analyse the energy changes occurring during S.H.M

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

4.  Gravitational field
(i.) Newtons Law of universal gravitation
(ii.) gravitational potential
(iii.) conservative and non conservative fields
acceleration due to gravity [g=GM/R]
variation of g on the earths surface
distinction between mass and weight
escape velocity
parking orbit and weightlessness

Candidate should be able to:
Identify the expressions for gravitational force between two bodies
Apply Newtons law of universal gravitation;
Give examples of conservative and non-conservative and non-conservation fileds;
deduce the expression for gravitational field potential.
identify the causes of variation of g on the earths surface;
differentiate between mass amd weight
determine escape velocity

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
5. Equilibrium of Forces

equilibrium of a particular
equilibrium of coplanar forces
triangles and polygon of forces
Lamis theorem

Principles of moments
Momemt of a force
Simple treatment and moment of a couple (torgue)
application
conditions for equilibrium of rigid bodies under the action of parallel and non parallel forces
resolution and composition of forces in two perpendicular directions, resultant and equilibrant
center of gravity and stability
Stable, unstable and neutral equilibrate.

OBJECTIVES
Candidate must be able to:
i.apply the conditions for the equilibrium of coplanar foirce to solve problems;
ii.use triangle and polygon laws of forces to solve equilibrium problems
iii.use Lamis theorem to solve problems
iv.analyse the principle of moment of a force
v.determine moment of a force and couple
vi.describe some applications of moment of a force and couple.
vii.apply the conditions for the equilibrium of rigid bodies to solve problems
viii.resolve forces into two perpendicular directions;
ix.determine the resultant and equilibrium of forces
x.differentiate between stable, unstable and neutral equilibrium

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
6. Work Energy and Power

(i)  definition of work, energy and power
(ii)  forms of energy
(iii)  conservation of energy
(iv)  qualitative treatment between different forms of energy
(v)  interpretation of area under the force-distance curve

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i   differentiate between work, energy and power;
ii.  compare different forms of energy, giving examples;
iii.  apply the principle of conservation of energy;
iv.  examine the transformation between different forms of energy;.
v.    interpret the area under the force -distance curve.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
7.Friction

(i)  static and dynamic friction
(ii)  coefficient of limiting friction and its determination.
(iv)  reduction of friction qualitative treatment of viscosity and terminal viscosity.
stoke's  law

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i.  differentiate between static and dynamic friction
ii. determine the coefficient of limiting friction;
iv. suggest ways by which friction can be reduced;
v. analyse factors that affect viscosity and terminal velocity;
vi. apply stoke's law.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
8.Simple Machines

(i)   definition of machine
(ii)  types of machines
(iii)  mechanical advantage,velocity ratio and efficiency of
machines

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i.  identify different types of machines;
ii. solve problems involving simple machines.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
9.Elasticity
.  (i)  elastic limit, yield point, breaking point, Hooke's law and Young's modulus
(ii)  the spring balance as a device for measuring force
(iii) work done in springs and elastic Strings

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i.  interpret force-extension curves; .
ii.  interpret Hooke's law and Young's modulus of a material; ,
iii  use spring balance to measure force;
iv.  determine the work done in spring and elastic strings

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
10.Pressure
(a) Atmospheric Pressure
(i) definition of atmospheric pressure
(ii) units of pressure (S.I) units
(iii) measurement of pressure
(iv) simple mercury.baromcter,aneroid barometer and   manometer.
(v) variation of pressure with height
(vi) the use of barometer as an altimeter.
(b) Pressure in liquids
(i) the relationship between pressure, depth and density (P = pgh)
(ii) transmission of pressure in liquids (Pascal's Principle)
(iii) application

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i.  recognize the S.I units of pressure;
ii. identify pressure measuring instruments;
iii. relate the variation of pressure to height;
iv. use a barometer as an altimeter.
v. determine the relationship between pressure, depth and density;
vi. apply the principle of transmission of pressure in liquids to solve problems;
vii. determine the application of pressure in liquid;

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
11.Liquids At Rest
(i) determination of density of solid and liquids
(ii) definition of relative density
(iii)upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid
(iv)Archimede's principle and law of floatation and applications, e.g. ships and hydrometers.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i.   distinguish between density  and relative density of substances;
ii.  determine the upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid
iii.  apply Archimedes' principle and law of floatation to solve problems

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
12.Temperature and Its Measurement

(i) concept of temperature
(ii) thermometric properties
(iii)calibration of thermometers
(iv) temperature scales Celsius and Kelvin.
(v) types of thermometers
(vi) conversion from one scale  of temperature to another

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i.  identify thermometric properties of materials that'are used for different thermometers;
ii.  calibrate thermometers;
iii. differentiate between temperature scales e.g Clesius and Kelvin.
iv.  compare the types of thermometers;
vi.  convert from one scale of temperature to another.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
13. Thermal Expansion

(a) Solids
(i)  definition and determination of linear, volume and area expansivities
(ii)  effects and applications, e.g. expansion in building strips and railway lines
(vi) relationship between different expansivities

(b) Liquids

(i) volume expansivity
(ii) real and apparent expansivities
(iii) determination of volume expansivity
(iv) anomalous expansion of water

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i.  determine linear and volume expansivities;
ii.  assess the effects and applications of thermal expansivities
iii.  determine the relationship between different expansivities.
iv. determine volume, apparent, and real expansivities of liquids;
v. analyse the anomalous expansion of water.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
14.Gas Laws

(i)   Boyle's law (PV = constant)
(ii)  Charle's law ( V/P = constant)
(iii)  Pressure law ( P/T = constant)
(iv)  Absolute zero of temperature
(v)   General gas equation ( PV /T= constant)
(vi)  Ideal gas equation (Pv=n RT)

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i.   interpret the gas laws;
ii.  use expression of these laws to solve numerical problems.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
15.Quantity of Heat
(i)   heat as a form of energy
(ii)  definition of heat capacity and specific heat capacity of solids and liquids
(iii) determination of heat capacity and specific heat capacity of substances by simple methods e.g method of mixtures and electrical method

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between heat capacity and specific heat capacity;
ii. determine heat capacity and specific heat capacity using simple methods;
iii. examine some numerical problems.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
16.Change of State
(i)   latent heat
(ii)  specific latent heats of fusion and vaporization;
(iii)  melting, evaporation and boiling
(iv)  the influence  of pressure  and  of dissolved substances on boiling and melting points.
(v)  application in appliances

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i.   differentiate between latent heat and specific latent heats of fusion and vaporization;
ii.  differentiate between melting, evaporation and boiling;
iii. examine the effects of pressure and of dissolved substance on boiling and melting points.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
17.Vapours
(i)  unsaturated and saturated vapours
(ii) relationship between saturated vapour pressure (S.V.P) and boiling
(iii) determination of  S.V.P  by barometer tube method
(iv) formation of dew, mist,  fog, and rain
(v)  study of dew point, humidity and relative humidity
(vi) hygrometry;    estimation    of  the humidity of the atmosphere using wet and dry bulb hydrometers.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i.   distinguish between saturated and unsaturated vapours;
ii.   relate saturated vapour pressure to boiling point;
iii.  determine S.V.P by barometer tube method
iv.  differentiate   between   dew point, humidity and relative humidity;
v   estimate the humidity of the atmosphere   using   wet   and dry bulb hydrometers.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

18.Structure of Matter and Kinetic Theory
(a) Molecular nature of matter
(i) atoms and molecules
(ii) molecular theory: explanation of Brownian motion, diffusion, surface tension, capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angles of contact
(iii) examples and applications.

(b)Kinetic Theory
(i)  assumptions of the kinetic theory
(ii) using the theory to explain the  pressure  exerted  by  gas,  Boyle's

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:

i.    differentiate between atoms and molecules;
ii.   use molecular theory to explain Brownian motion, diffusion, surface, tension, capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angle of contact;
iii.   examine the assumptions of kinetic theory;
interpret kinetic theory, the pressure exerted by gases Boyles law, Charles law melting, boiling vaporization, change in temperature, evaporation, etc

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

19. Heat Transfer
Condition, convetion and radiation as modes of heat transfer
Temperature gradient, thermal conductivity and heat flux
Effect of the nature of the surface on the energy radiated and absorbed by it.
The conductivites of common materials
The thrmos flask Land and sea breeze

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between conduction , convention and radiation as modes of heart transfer;
ii. determine temperature gradient, thermal conductivity and heat flux
iii. assess the effect of the nature of the surface on the energy radiated and absorbed by it;
iv. compare the conductivities of commonmaterials
v. relate  the component part of the working of the thermo flask;
vi. different between land and sea breeze.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

20. Waves

Production and propagation
Wave motion
Vibrating systems as source of waves
Waves as mode of energy transfer
distinction between particle motion and wave motion
relationship between frequency wavelength and wave velocity (v=f?)
phase difference
progressive wave equation e.g y=A sin (2 p(vt+x))/?

Classification
Types of waves; mechanical and electromagnetic waves
Longitudinal and transverse waves
Stationery and progressive waves
Examples of waves from springs, ropes, stretched strings and the ripple tank.

Chracteristics/Properties
Reflection, refractions, diffraction and plane Polarization
Superposition of waves e.g interference

OBJECTIVES

Candidate should be a ble to

i. Interpret wave motion
ii. Identify vibrating systems as sources of waves
iii. Use waves as a mode of energy transfer;
iv. Distinguish between particle motion and wave motion
v. Relate frequency and wave length to wave velocity
vi. Determine phase difference
vii. Use the progressive wave equation to compute basic wave parameters
viii. Differentiate between mechanical and electromagnetic waves.
ix. Differentiate between longitudinal and transverse waves.
x. Distinguish between stationary and progressive waves
xi. Indicate the example of waves generated from springs, ropes, stretched strings and the ripple tank;
xii. Differenctiate between reflection, refraction, diffraction and plane polarization of waves.
xiii. Analyse the principle of superposition of waves.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
21. Propagation of sound waves

the necessity for a material medium
speed of sound in solids, liquids and air;
reflection of sound; echoes, reverberation and their applications

OBJECTIVES
Candidate should be able to:
i. determine the need for a metrial medium in the propagation of sound waves
ii. compare the speed of sound in solids liquid and air
iii. relate the effects of temperature and pressure to the speed of sound in air
solve problem on echoes, reverberation

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

22. Characteristics of sound waves
(i) noise and musical notes
(ii) quality, pitch, intensity application and loudness and their application to musical instruments
(iii)simple treatment of overtones produced by vibrating strings and their coloumns [F=L/2Lv(T/M)]
acoustic examples of resonance
frequency of a note emitted by air columns in closed and open pipes in relation to their lengths.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

23. Light Energy

Source of Light:
Natural and artificial source of light
Luminous and non-luminous objects

Propagation of light
Speed frequency and wavelength of light
(ii) Formation of shadows and eclipse
The pin-hole camera

OBJECTIVES
Candidate  should be able to:
i. Compare the natural and artificial sources of light
ii.Differentiate between luminous and non luminous object
iii. Relate the speed, frequency and wavelength of light.
iv. Interpret the formation of shadows and eclipse
v. Solve problems using the principle of operation of a pin-hole camera

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

24. Reflection of light a Plane and curved surfaces
(i) laws of reflection
(ii) application of reflection of light
(iii) Formation of images by plane concave and convex mirrors and ray diagrams
(iv) use of the mirror formula

[1/f=(1/u)+(1/v)
(v) Linear magnification

OBEJCTIVES

Candidates should be able to
i. Interpret the laws of reflection
ii. Illustrate the formation of images by plane, concave and convex mirros:
iii. Apply the mirror formula to solve optical problems;
iv. Determine the linear magnification
v. Apply the laws of reflection of light to the working of periscope, kaleidoscope and the sextant.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
25. Refraction of light through
(a)Plane and Curved Surface
(i) explanation of refraction in terms of velocity of light in the media
(ii) laws of refraction
(iii) definition of refraction index of a medium
(iv) determination of refraction index of glass and liquid using Snells law
(v) real and apparent depth and lateral displacement
(vI) critical angle and total internal reflection

(b) Glass Prism
Use of the minimum deviation formula

U=(sin((A+D)/2))/sin(A/2)
Type of lenses
Use of formula 1/f = (1/u) + (1/v)
magnification

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i. interpret the laws of refelction ;
ii. determine the refractive index of glass and liquid using Snells law;
iii.determine the refractive index using the principle of real and apparent depth
iv. determine the conditions necessary for total internal refelction;
v. examine the use of periscope, prism, binoculars, optical fibre.
vi.Apply the principles of total internal reflection to the formula of mirage
vii. Use of lens formula and ray diagrams to solve optical numerical problems
viii.Determine the magnification of an image
ix.Calculate the refractive index of a glass prism suing minimum deviation formula

TOPIC/CONTENT/NOTEs
26. Optical Instruments
(i) the principles of miscroscopes, telescopes, projections, cameras and the human eye (physiological details of the eye are not required)
(ii) power of a lens
(iii) Angular magnification
(iv) site defects and their corrections

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to
i. apply the principles of operation of optical instruments to solve problems
ii.distinguish between the human eye and the cameras
iii. calculate the power of a lens
iv. determine the angular magnification of optical instruments
v. determine the near and far points
vi. detect sight defects and their corrections.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

27 (a) dispersion of light and colours
Dispersion of white light by a triangular prism
Production of pure spectrum
Colour mixing by addition and subtraction
Colour of objects abd colour filters.

(b) electromagnetic spectrum
(i) description of sources and uses of various types of radiation

OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to

i. Relate the expression for gravitational force between two bodies
ii. Apply Newtons laws of universal gravitation
iii. Identify primary colours and obtain secondary colour by mixing.
iv. Deduces why objects have colours
v. Analyse colours using colour filters
vi. Analayse the electromagnetic spectrum in relation to their wavelengths, sources, detection and uses.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
28. Electrostatics
(i) existence of ositive and negative charges in matter
(ii) charging a body by friction, contact and induction
(iii) electroscope
(iv) Coulombs inverse square law electric field and potential
Electric field and potential

OBJECTIVES
Candidate should be able to:
i. Identify charges
ii. Examine uses of an electronscope
iii.apply coulombs square law of electrostatic to solve problems
iv. deduce expression for electric field and potential
v. identify electric field flux patterns of isolated and interacting charges
vi. analyze the distribution of charges on a conductor and how it is used I lightening conductors.

Conductor and how it is used in lightening conductors

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

29. Capacitors

Functions of capacitors
Parallel plate capacitors
Capacitance of a capacitors
The relationship between capacitance, area separation of plates and medium between the plates [C=3A/d]
Capacitors in series and parallel
Energy stored in a capacitor

OBJECTIVES
Candidate should be able to:
i. determine uses of capacitors
ii. analyse parallel plate capacitors
iii. determine the capacitance of a capacitor
iv. analyse the factors that affect the capacitance of a capacitor
v. solve problems involving the arrangement of capacitor
vi. determine the energy stored in capacitors

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

30. Electric Cells
(i) simple voltaic cell and its defects;
(ii) Daniel cell, Leclanche cell (wet and dry)
(iii) lead acid accumulator and Nickel Iron (Nife) Lithium Ion and Mercury cadmium
(iv) maintenance of cells and batteries (detail treatment of the chemistry of a cell is not required
(v) arrangement of cell

OBJECTIVES
Candidate should be able to:
i. identify the defects of the simple voltaic cell and their corrected;
ii. compare different types of cells including solar cell
iv. citance of a capacitor
v. solve problems involving series and parallel combination of cells

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES

31. Current Electricity
(i) electromagnetic force (emf), potential difference (p.d.), current, internal resistance of a cell and lost volt
(ii) Ohms law
(iii) measurement of resistance
(iv) meter bridge
(v) resistance in series and in parallel and their combination
the potentiometer method of measuring emf, current and internal resistance of a cell.

OBJECTIVES
Candidate should be able to:
i. differentiate between emf p.d current and internal resistance of a cell.
ii. apply ohms law to solve problems
iii. Use meter bridge to calculate resistance
iv. Compute effective total resistance of both parallel and series arrangement of resistors
v. determine the resistivity and the conductivity of a conductor
vi. measure emf current and internal resistance of a cell using the potentiometer.

32.Electrical Energy and Power
(i)   concepts of electrical energy and power
(ii)   commercial unit of electric energy and power
(iii)  electric power transmission
(iv)   heating effects of electric current.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. apply the expressions of electrical energy and power to solve problems;
ii. analyse how power is transmitted from the power station to the consumer;
iii. identify the heating effects, of current and its uses.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
33.Magnets and Magnetic Fields
(i)   natural and artificial magnets
(ii)   magnetic properties of soft iron and steel
(iii)  methods of making magnets and demagnetization
(iv)   concept of magnetic field
(v)   magnetic field of a permanent magnet
(vi)   magnetic field round a straight current carrying conductor, circular wire and solenoid
(vii)   properties of the earth's magnetic Meld; north and south poles, magnetic meridian and angle of dip and declination
(viii)  flux and flux density
(ix)   variation of magnetic field intensity over the earth's  surface
(x)   applications: earth's magnetic field in navigation and mineral exploration.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. give examples of natural and artificial magnets
ii. differentiate between the magnetic properties of soft iron and steel;
iii. identify  the  various  methods of making magnets and  demagnetizing magnets;
iv. describe how to keep a magnet from losing its magnetism;
v. determine the flux pattern exhibited when two magnets are  placed together pole to pole;
vi. determine  the  flux  of a current carrying conductor, circular wire and solenoid including the polarity of the solenoid;
vii. determine the flux pattern of magnetic placed in the earth's magnetic fields;
viii. identify the magnetic elements of the earth's flux;
ix.  determine the variation of earth's magnetic field on the earth's surface;
x.     examine the applications of   the earth's magnetic field.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
34.Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field
quantitative treatment of force between two parallel current carrying conductors.
Force on a charge moving in a magnetic field
The dc motor
Electromagnets
Carbon microphone
Moving coil and moving iron instruments
Conversion of galvanometers to ammeters and voltmeter using shunts and multipliers

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. determine the direction of force on a current carrying conductor using Flemings left-hand rule:
ii. interpret the attractive and repulsive forces between two parallel current carrying conductors using diagrams:
iii. determine the relationship between the force, magnetif field strength, velocity and the angle though which the charge enters the field
iv. interpret the working of the d. c. motor
v. analyse the principle of electromagnets give examples of its application
vi.compare moving iron and moving coil instruments
vii. converts a galvanometer into an ammeter or a voltmeter

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
35. (a) Electromagnetic Induction

Factors affecting induced emf
Lenzs law as an illustration of the principle of conservation of energy
A.c and d.c generators
Transformers
The induction coil

(b) Inductance
i. Explanation of inductance
ii. Unit of inductor
iii. Energy stored ina n inductance
E= 1I2 L/2
iv. Application/uses of inductors

c.Eddy Current

i. reduction of eddy current
ii. application of eddy current

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. interpret the laws of electromagnetic induction
ii. identify the factors affecting induced emf;
iii. recognize how Lenz law illustrates the principle of conservation of energy
iv. interpret the diagrammatic setup of A.C. generators;
v. indentify the types of transformer
vi. examine principles of operation of transformers
vii. assess the functions of an induction coil
viii. draw some conclusions from the principles of operation of an induction coil
ix. interpret the inductance of an inductor
x. recognize units of inductance of an inductor
xi. calculate the effective total inductance in series and parallel arrangement.
xii. deduce the expression for the energy stored in an inductor;
xiii. examine the applications of inductors
xiv. describe the method by which eddy current losses can be reduced.
xv. determine the ways by which eddy current can be used.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
36. Simple A.C. Circuits
i. Explanation of a.c current and voltage
ii. Peak and r.m.s values
iii. A.C. sources connected to a resistor
iv. A.C. sources connected to a capacitor-capacitive reactance
v. A.C. sources connected to an inductor-inductive reactance
vi. Series R-L-C circuits
vii. Vector diagram
viii. Reactance and impedance of alternative quantities
ix. Effective voltage in an R-L-C circuits
x. Resonance and resonance frequency
[F0 =1/(2pvLC)

OBJECTIVES
Candidate should be able to
i. identify A.C. current of and d. d. voltage
ii. differentiate between the peak and r.m.s. values of a.c
iii. determine the phase difference between current and voltage
iv. nterpret series R-L-C circuit
v. analyse vector diagrams
vi. calculate the effective voltage reactance and impedance
vii. recognize the condition by which the circuit is at resonance
viii. determine the resonant frequency of R-L-C arrangement
ix. determine the instantaneous power, average power and the power factor in a circuit.

37. Conduction of Electricity through liquid
(a) liquids
(i) electrolytes and non electrolytes
(ii) concept of electrolysis
(iv) application of electrolysis e.g electroplating, calibration of ammeter etc.

(b) gases
(i) discharges through gases(quantitative treatment only)
(ii) application of conduction of electricity through gases

OBJECTIVES

Candidate should be able to
i. distinguish  between electrolytes and non-electrolytes
ii. analyse the processes of electrolytes
iii. apply faradays laws of electrolysis to solve problems
iv. analyse discharge through gases
v. determine some applications/uses of conduction of electricity through gases.

TOPIC/COMMENT/NOTES

38. Elementary Modern Physics

(i) models of the atom and their limitations
(ii) elementary structure of the atom
(iii) energy level and spectra
(iv) thermionic and photoelectric emissions
(v) einsteins equation and stopping potential
(vi) applications of thermionic emissions and photoelectric effects
(vii) simple method of production of x-rays
(viii) properties and applications of alpha, beta and gamma rays.
(xiii) halflife and decay constant
(xiv) simple ideas of production energy by fission
(xv) binding energy, mass defect and Einteins Energy equation[?E=?Mc^2
(xvi) wave-particle paradox (duality of matter)
(xvii) electron diffraction
(xviii) the uncertainty principle

OBJECTIVES
Candidate should be able to
i. identify the models of the atom and write their limitation
ii. describe elementary structure of the atom
iii. differentiate between the energy levels and spectra of atom
iv. compare thermionic emission and photoelectric effects
v. apply  Einsteins equation to solve problems of photoelectric effect
vi. calculate the stopping potential
vii. relate some application of thermionic emission and photoelectric effects
viii. interpret the process involved in the production of x-rays
ix. identify come properties and application of x-rays
xi. distinguish between stable and unstable nuclei
xii. Identify isotopes of an element
xiii. compare the properties of alpha beta and gamma rays
xiv. relate half life and decay constant of a radioactive element
xv. determine the binding energy, mass defect and Einsteinss energy equation
xvi. analyse wave particle duality
xvii. Solve some numerical problems based on the uncertainty principle

TOPIC/COMMENT/NOTES

39. Introductory Electronics
(i) distinguish between metals semi conductors and insulators(elementary knowledge of band gap is required)
(ii) intrinsic and extrinsic semi conductor
(iii)uses of semiconductors and diodes in rectification and transistors in amplification.
(iv) n-type and p-type semi-conductors
(v) elementary knowledge of diode and transistors
(vi) use of semiconductors and diodes in rectification and transistors in amplification

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to
i. differentiate between conducturs, semi conductors and insulators
ii. distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors
iii.distinguish between electron and hole carrier
iv. distinguish between n-type and p-type semi-conductor
vi. analyse diodes to rectification and transistor to amplification

Physics
RECOMMENDED TEXTS
1.Okeke, P. N and Anyakoha, M. W (2000) Senior Secondary School Physics,
Lagos: Pacific Printers
2.Olumuyionwa A. and Ogunkoya O. O (1992) Comprehensive Certificate
Ike, E. E (2006) Essential Principles of Physics, Aba Enic Publishers
Ike, E. E (2005) Numerical Problems and Solutions in Physics, F = Ma Enic
Publishers, Aba
5.Ike, E. E. (2009) Introductory University Physics Enic Publishers, Jos
6.Abbott, A. F. Principle of Physics (Fifth Edition) Heinemann Educational
Publishere Halley Court, Jordan   Education Limited.
7.  Anyakoha M. W. (2010) New School Pyhsics for Senior Secondary Schools (Third Edition) Africana First Publishers Pic
```

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