History HISTORY GENERAL OBJECTIVES The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in History is to prepare the candidates for the Board's examinations. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to: 1. impact knowledge of Nigerian history from earliest times to the present; 2. identify the similarities and relationship between the people of Nigeria as they relate to the issues of national unity and integration; 3. appropriate African history and Africa's relationship with the wider world; 4. analyse issues of modernization and development; 5.evaluate the past and relate it to the present and plan for the future. DETAILED SYLLABUS SECTION A: NIGERIA UP TO 1800 TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 1. LAND AND PEOPLE OF NIGERIA: a. Geographical zones b. People within the zones c. The people's relationship with the environment OBJECTIVES candidates should be able to: i. identity the geographical zones and the people within them; ii. establish the relationship between the people and the environment TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 2. Early centres of civilization: a. NOK, Daima, Ife, Benin, Igbo Ukwu and Iwo Eleru b. Monuments and shelter system: Kuyambana and Durbi-ta-Lusheyi OBJECTIVES candidates should be able to: i. examine the significance of various centres; ii. differentiate between the various monuments such as caves and huge rocky areas; iii. establish their historical significance. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 3.Origin and Development of Nigerian states and societies a. Central Sudan - Hausa,Fulani and Kanuri b. Niger/Benue valley - Nupe, Jukun, lgala, Idoma, Tiv and Ebira c. Eastern forest Belt - Igbo and Ibibio d. Western forest Belt - Yoruba and Edo e. Coastal and Niger-Delta -Efik, Ijo, Itsekiri and Urhobo i. Factors influencing their origin and migration ii. Economic, social and political organizations iii. Inter-group relations, war, peace, trade and religion. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. relate the different groups of people occupying the various zones to their traditions of origin; ii. determine their inter-group relations; iii. account for their economic, social and political organizations. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 4. Economic Activities: a. Agriculture - hunting, farming, fishing, animal husbandry and horticulture. a. Industries - pottery, salt- making, iron-smelting, blacksmithing, leather-working, wood-carving, cloth-making, dyeing and food processing. b. Trade and trade routes:- local, regional, long distance, including trans-Sahara trade c. Trade and trade routes: local, regional, long distance, including trans - Sahara trade OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. compare the various economic activities of the people; ii. differentiate between crafts and other forms of occupation of the people; iii. relate the trade routes, to their importance to Nigerian history. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 5. External Influences: a. Europeans: i. early European trade with the coastal states. ii. early Christian missionary activities. iii. the trans-Atlantic slave trade (origin, organization and Impact) b. Arabs i. introduction, spread and impact of Islam; ii. trans-Saharan trade OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. examine the impact of early European contact with the coastal people; ii. assess the early Christian missionary activities; iii. trace the origin, organization and impact of the trans-Atlantic slave trade; iv assess their impact; v. assess the impact of Arab contact on the people South of the Sahara. SECTION B: NIGERIA 1800-1900 TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 1.The Sokoto Caliphate a.The Sokoto Jihad - causes, courses and consequences. b.The rise of the caliphate c.The administration of the caliphate and relations with neighbours. d.Intellectual activities in the caliphate e.The collapse of the caliphate OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. examine the causes, courses and consequences of the Jihad; ii. determine the factors that led to the rise of the caliphate; iii. examine the administrative set-up of the caliphate and its relations with its neighbours; iv. examine the significance of the writing of the jihadists; v. trace the internal and external factors that led to the collapse of the caliphate. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 2.Kanem-Borno a.The collapse of the Saifawa dynasty b.Borno under the Shehus c.Borno under Rabe OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. determine the factors that led to the collapse of the Saifawa dynasty; ii. examine Borno under the administration of the Shehus; iii. assess the role of Rabeh in Borno's history. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 3.Yorubaland: a.The fall of the Old Oyo Empire b.The Yoruba wars and their impact c.The peace treaty of 1886 and its aftermath OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. examine the causes of the fall of the Old Oyo; ii. examine the causes and effects of the Yoruba wars: iii. assess the impact of the 1886 peace treaty. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 4.Benin a. Internal political development b. Relations with neighbours c. Relations with the Europeans OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. examine the internal political development; ii. establishher relations with her neighbors; iii assess her relationship with the Europeans; TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 5. European Relations with Nigeria: a. The suppression of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. b. The development of commodity trade and rise of consular authority. c. Christian missionary activities. d. Impact of European activities on the coast and the hinterland. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. give reasons for the suppression of the trans Atlantic slave trade; ii. trace the development of commodity trade; iii. examine, missionary and European activities in the area; iv. account for the rise of consular authority, TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 6. The British Conquest of Nigeria: a. Motives for the conquest b. Methods of the conquest and its result. c. Resistance to and aftermath of the conquest. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. determine the reasons for the conquest and the method used; ii. evaluate the results of and the reactions to the conquest. SECTION C: NIGERIA 1900 1960 TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 1. The Establishment of Colonial Administration up to 1914: a. Administration of the protectorates. b. Local administration, forced labour, foreign currency, taxation and monetization OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. examine the administrative set-up of the protectorates; ii. examine the system of administration with emphasis on forced labour, foreign currency,taxation and monetization. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 2. The Amalgamation of 1914: a. Reasons b. Effects OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. examine the reasons for the 1914 Amalgamation and its effects. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 3. Colonial Administration after the Amalgamation:. a. Central Administration:- Legislative and Executive Councils b. Indirect Rule - reasons, working and effects c. Local government institutions, native authorities, native courts and native treasuries. d. Protest against colonial rule - Ekumeku Movement in Asaba hinterland 1898 - 1911, the Satiru uprising 1906, Egba and the Anti-tax Agitation 1918, the rising in Okeho and Iseyin 1918, Warri Tax Revolt in 1927 -28, Aba Women Movement in 1929 and the Water Rate Agitation in Benin OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. relate the composition of the central Administrative set-up to its consequences; ii. identify the reasons for the introduction and workings of the indirect rule system; iii. assess the effects of indirect rule; iv. account for the anti-colonial movements; v. examine their significance. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 4. The Colonial Economy: a. Transportation b. Agriculture c. Mining d. Industry e. Commerce f. Banking. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. examine the nature of the economy as it affects transportation, agriculture, mining, industry, commerce and banking. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 5. Social Development under Colonial Rule: a. Western education b. Urbanization c. Improvement unions d. Health institutions OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. identify the areas of social development under colonial rule; ii. examine the impact of social development on the people; TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 6. Nationalism and Constitutional Development: a. The rise of nationalist movements; b. The 1922 Clifford Constitution and the rise of Nigeria's first political parties. c. The Richards Constitution of 1946 d. The Macpherson Constitution of 1951. e. Party politics - regionalism, federalism and minorities agitations. f. The dawn of independence the Littleton Constitution of 1954, constitutional conference in Lagos in 1957; and g. In London in 1958, the general elections of 1959 and independence 1960. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. trace the emergence of the nationalist movement; ii. assess the roles of the different constitutions in constitutional development; iii. determine the factors that aided the attainment of independence; iv. examine the impact of the constitutions on the people; v. trace the development or party politics and its impact; vi. examine the 1945 constitutional conference. SECTION D: NIGERIA SINCE INDEPENDENCE TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 1. The politics of the First Republic and Military intervention a. Struggle for the control of the centre; b. Issue of revenue allocation c. The 1962/63 census controversies d. The Action Group crisis e. Military intervention-reasons and significance of the Ironsi Regime OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. give reasons behind the struggle for the control of the centre; ii. account for the controversies in revenue allocation; iii. account for the controversies generated by the 1962/63 census and the Action Group crisis; iv. provide reasons behind military intervention; v. assess the significance of military intervention and the role of the military under Ironsi. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 2. The Civil War: Causes and effects a. Causes b. Causes c. Effects OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to i. examine the remote and immediate causes of the war; ii. assess the effects of the war; iii. examine the courses. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 3 The Gowon Regime: a.Reconstruction, Reconciliation, Rehabilitation. b.The era of oil boom, social and economic development c.State creation d.The fall of Gowon OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. examine the effects of Gowon's plans to re-integrate the East; ii. account for the economic and social development during the oil boom; iii. give reasons for the creation of states; iv. examine the reasons for and the effects of the overthrow of Gowon. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 4.Murtala/Obasanjo Regime OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. assess the achievements of the Murtala/Obasanjo Regime; TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 5. The Second Republic OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. evaluate the legacies of the Shagari Administration TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 6. The Buhari Regime OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. assess the achievements of Nigeria under Buhari TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 7. The Babangida Regime OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. assess the strengths and weaknesses of the Babangida era; ii. examine the transition programme under Babangida. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 8. The Interim National Government (ING) OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. examine the role of the interim National Government in the history of Nigeria. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 9. The Abacha and Abdulsalami Regimes OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. assess the role of theAbacha and Abdulsalami regimes in the history of Nigeria TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 1O. Nigeria's role in conflict resolution, ECOMOG in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. identify the West African states that benefited from Nigeria's military assistance; ii. examine the impact of Nigeria's role in ECOMOG TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES ll. Nigeria in international organization; AU, ECOWAS, UN, the Commonwealth of Nations and OPEC OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. assess the role of Nigerian in the formation of AU and ECOWAS ii. examine the benefits accruing to Nigeria as a member of the U.N, Common wealth and OPEC. PART II: AFRICA AND THE WIDER WORLD SINCE 1800 SECTION A: WEST AND NORTH AFRICA TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 1. Islamic Reform Movements and State Building in West Africa: a.Relationship between Sokoto and other Jihads. b.The Jihads of Seku Ahmadu and Al-Hajj Umar c.The activities of SamoriToure OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. establish the relationship between the Sokoto Jihad and other Jihads in West Africa: ii. compare the achievements of the Jihads of Seku Ahmadu and Al-Hajj Umar. iii. assess the significance of the literary works of the period iv. examine the activities of Samori Toure of the adinka Empire TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 2. Christian missionary activities in West Africa a.The foundation of Sierra Leone and Liberia and the spread of Christianity b.The impact of Christian Missionary activities. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. determine the factors that led to founding of Sierra Leone and Liberia; ii. examine the importance of Sierra Leone and Liberia in the spread of Christianity; iii. assess the impact of Christian missionary activities in West Africa. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 3. Egypt under Mohammed AH and Khedive Ismail: a.The rise of Mohammad Ali and his reforms b.Mohammad Ali's relations with the Europeans c.Ismail's fiscal policiess d.The British occupation of Egypt OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. determine the factors that Aided Mohammad Ali's rise to power and his reforms; ii. establish the relationship between Mohammad Ali's Empire and the Europeans; iii. account for the fiscal policies of Ismail; iv. examine the reasons for the British occupation of Egypt. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 4.The Maghrib and European incursion: a.Turkish rule in the Maghrib b.French occupation of Algeria,Tunisia and Morocco c.Italy in Libya d.Maghribian reaction to European rule OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. determine the factors that led toTurkish rule in the Maghrib; ii. give reasons for the French occupation of Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco; iii. account for Italian presence in Libya iv. assess the Maghribians reaction to European rule. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 5.The Mahdi and Mahdiyya Movement in the Sudan a.Causes b.Courses c.Consequences OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. examine the causes, coursesand consequences of the Mahdiyya Movement in the Sudan. SECTION B: EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 1.The Omani Empire a.SayyidSa'idandtheriseofthe Omani Empire b.The empire's commercial and political relations with the coast and the hinterland. c.The Empire's relations with the Europeans OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. determine the factors that led to the rise of the Omani Empire; ii. establish commercial and political relations between the Omani Empire, the coast and the hinterland. iii. examine the relationship that existed between the Omani Empire and the Europeans TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 2.Buganda in the 19th century a.The British occupation of Bugansa b.Religious politics OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. give reasons for the British occupation of Buganda and show the effect of religion had on the politics of Buganda. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 3.Ethiopia in the 19th century a.The rise of Theodore II and his attempt at the unification of Ethiopia b.Menelik II and the survival of Ethiopian independence OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. examine the factors that led to the rise of Theodore II as the Emperor of Ethiopia; ii. analyse the strategies that were adopted to achieve Ethiopian unification. iii. assess the effects of Menelik II in the survival of Ethiopian independence TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 4. TheMfecane: a.The rise of Zulu nations b.Courses and consequences of the fecane OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. trace events in Nguniland before the Mfecane; ii. determine for the factors that led to the rapid rise of Shaka. iii. examine the courses and consequences of the Mfecane TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 5. The Great Trek a.The frontier wars b. British intervention in the Boer African relations c. The Great Trek and its consequences OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. determine the factors that led to the frontier wars; ii. account for British intervention in the Boer-African relations; iii. describe the nature of the Great Trek; iv. examine its consequences SECTION C: THEMES IN AFRICAN HISTORY SINCE THE SCRAMBLE TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 1. The new imperialism, the partition and the European occupation of Africa a.Causes of the scramble b.The Berlin Conference c. The occupation and the reaction of Africans OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. examine the causes of the scramble; ii. account of the decision reached at the Berlin Conference and its aftermath. iii. examine African reaction to the occupation. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 2. Patterns of colonial rule in Africa: a.The British b.The French c.The Portuguese d.The Belgians OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. compare the patterns of colonial rule by the various European powers. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 3.The Politics of decolonization a.Colonial policies and African discontent b.The impact of the two world wars c. Nationalist activities and the emergence of political parties and associations d.Strategies of attaining independence OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. examine the policies employed by the colonial masters; ii. show the magnitude of African discontent; iii. assess the impact of the First and Second World Wars on African nationalism. iv. determine the strategies used in the attainment of independence. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 4. Apartheid a.Prelude to apartheid b.Rise of Afrikaner nationalism c.Enactment of apartheid laws d.Internal reaction and the suppression of African nationalist movements e.External reaction to apartheid, AU, the Commonwealth of Nations, UN and the frontline states. f.The dismantling of apartheid g. Post-apartheid development OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. trace the origin of apartheid in South Africa; ii. give reasons for the rise of Afrikaner nationalism; iii. describe how apartheid laws were enacted; iv. relate the internal reaction to apartheid to the African struggle for majority rule; v. relate the contributions of African states and international organizations to the fight against apartheid; vi. identify the steps taken towards the dismantling of apartheid development in South Africa vii. assess the post-apartheid development in South Africa. TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 5. Problems of Nation-building in Africa a.Political and economic constraints b.Ethnic and religious pluralism c.Military intervention and political instability. d.Neo-colonialism and under development. e.Boundary disputes and threat to African unity f. Civil wars and the refuge problem OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. examine the political and economic problems faced by African countries in nation-building; ii. determine the role of ethnic and religious problems in African; iii. examine the role of the military in African politics; iv. examine the role of neo-colonialism in Africa; v. assess the problems of boundary disputes; vi. establish the relationship between refuge problems and civil wars in Africa History RECOMMENDED TEXTS Abba, A (2000): The Example of NEPU, Centre for Democratic Research and Training, Zaria, Hanwa: Abba, A (2006): the Politics of Mallam AminuKano, Kaduna Vanguard and Publishers. Abun-Nast, J. M (1977): A History of the Maghrib, London, Cambridge Universiy Press. Afigbo, A. E. et al (1986): The Making of Modern Africa, The Twentieth Century Vol 2. Longman. Ajayi and Cowther (1971): History of West Africa Vol. I, London, Longman. 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