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JAMB Brochure for 2016/2017 [Official]

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GOVERNMENT
GENERAL OBJECTIVES

The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) is to prepare the candidates for the Board's examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the objectives of the course in Government.
These objectives are to:
i.  appreciate the meaning of government;
ii. analyse the framework and specify the institutions of government;
iii. explain the concept of citizenship and define the duties and obligations of a citizen; 
iv. appreciate the process of political development; 
v. evaluate the political development and problems of governance in Nigeria; 
vi. assess the role of Nigeria as a member of the international community and the workings of international organizations


TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
1.Basic concepts in government
a.Power, Right, Legitimacy, Authority, Sovereignty:
b. Society, State, nation, Nation- State;
c. Political Processes Political Socialization, Political Participation, Political Culture.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i.   identify the fundamental concepts in governance; 
ii.  analyse various political processes;

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
2.Forms of Government:
Monarchy, Aristocracy, Oligarchy, Autocracy, Republic, Democracy- definitions,  features,  merits  and demerits.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to: 
i.   distinguish between different forms of government.


TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
3.Arms of Government:
a.The Legislature - types, structure, functions, powers;
b.The  executive  -  types  and functions, powers;
c.The  Judiciary   - functions,

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the duties and obligations of the various arms of government and their agencies;
ii.  relate each arm to its function.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
4.Structures of Government:
Unitary, Federal, Confederal - features,  reasons for   adoption, merits and demerits.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i. compare  the  various   political structures of governance. 


TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
5.Systems of Governance:
Presidential, Parliamentary and Monarchical.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i.   distinguish between the different systems of governance.


TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
4.Political Ideologies: 
Communalism, Feudalism, Capitalism, Socialism, Fascism, Communism

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to: 
i.  differentiate between the major political ideologies; 
ii. contrast modes of production,


TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
7.  Constitution
Written, Unwritten, Rigid and Flexible.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to: 
i.   compare   the   nature  of constitutions 


TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
8.Principles  of   Democratic Government:
Ethics and accountability in Public Office separation of power/checks and balances, individual and Collective Responsibility Constitutionalism, Rule of Law.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
 i.  identify the principles of democratic government; 
ii.  determine the application of these principles;

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
9.Processes of Legislation: 
Legislative   Enactment   -   acts, edicts,  delegated  legislation, decrees.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to: 
i. analyse the processes involved in the making of laws.


TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
9.Citizenship:
i.  Meaning, types 
ii.  Citizenship rights; 
iii. Duties    and   obligations    of citizens

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to: 
i. differentiate between the various types of citizenship; 
ii. specify the  rights and responsibilities of a citizen.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
11.  The Electoral Process: 
Franchise, Election, Electoral System, Electoral Commission

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i.  analyse the various electoral processes. 


TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
12.  Party Systems:
i. Definition, function and types 
ii. Political parties - Definition, Organization, functions.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to: 
i.   distinguish   between   types   of party system; 
ii.  assess the role of political parties


TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
13.Pressure Groups:
Definition, types, functions and modes of operation.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to: 
i.   distinguish   between  pressure groups and political parties


TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
14.Public Opinion:
Meaning, functions and measurement.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to: 
i.   assess  the   function   of public opinion; 
ii.  compare  methods  of assessing public opinion.


TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
15. The Civil service:
Definition, Characteristics, functions,  structure, control  and problems.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to: 
i.   analyse the significance of civil service,in governance.

PART II
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
1.Pre - colonial Polities: 
Sarauta, Emirate, Tiv, Igbo, Yoruba - structure/system of governance

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to: 
i.   Compare pre-colonial systems of governance

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
2.Imperialist Penetration:
a.The British process of acquisition - trade, missionary activities, company rule, crown
colony, protectorate;
b.The British colonial administrative policy – direct and indirect rule;
c.Impact of British colonial rule economic, political, socio-cultural;
d.Comparison of British and French Colonial administration.

OBJECTIVES
i.   Compare pre-colonial systems of governance
Candidates should be able to: 
i.  trace the processes of imperialist penetration; 
ii. assess   the   impact   of  British policies; 
iii. distinguish between British and French colonial practices.


TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
3.Process of Decolonization
a.Nationalist Movements - meaning, emergence, goals, strategies, nationalist leaders - Herbert Macaulay, Nnamdi Azikiwe, Obafemi Awolowo,Ahmadu Bello and others; emergence of nationalist parties
b.Influence of Exteral factors;
c.Constitutional development -the Clifford (1922, Richards (1946), Macpherson (1951), Lyttelton (1954) and Independence (I960) constitutions.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to: 
i.  evaluate    the  process    of decolonization; 
ii. assess  the  roles  of nationalist leaders and parties; 
iii. assess the  impact  of external forces and ideas (Pan-Africanism, Back - to - Africa Movements, etc),
iv. Compare the various constitutional developments.


TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
4.Post-independence Constitutions 1963, 1979, 1989 and 1999 -characteristics and shortcomings

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to: 
i.   assess the workings of the various constitutions.


TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
5.Institutions of Government in the Post - Independence period; 
The legislature, the executive and the Judiciary - structure, functions and workings

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i.evaluate the operations of the arms of government and their agencies, e.g the civil service, armed forces, police, courts and others. 


TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
5.Public Commissions Established by the 1979 and Subsequent Constitutions:
The Civil service Commission, the Public  Complaints  Commission, Electoral Commissions and others objectives and functions.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i.   evaluate the operations of public commissioners;
ii.  assess  the problems of, and constraints on
iii. the public commissions.


TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
7.Political  parties  in   the  Post- Independence period:
Political parties party politics — First, second, third and fourth Republics.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to: 
i.  Contrast political process in the republics.


TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
8. The structure and Workings of Nigerian Federalism:
a. Rationale for a Federal System
b. Tiers of government and their relationship
c. Creation of States - 1963, 1967, 1976, 1987, 1991, 1996;
d. Problems of Nigerian Federalism - census, revenue allocation, conflicts etc. solutions e. g. Federal character, etc.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to: 
i.  examine the workings of Nigerian federalism;.
ii. identify its problems; 
iii. evaluate the corrective measure adopted.


TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
10.Local Government:
a.Localgovernment administration prior to 1976;
b.Features of Local Government reforms (1976, 1989) - structure, functions, finance and inter-governmental relation;
c.Traditional rulers and local governments.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to: 
i.   trace the evolution and structure of local government; 
ii.  identify the major problems faced by local governments.


TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
11.The military in Nigerian Politics
a.Factors that led to military intervention;
b.Structure of military regimes;
c.Impact of military rule - political, e. g state creation etc.  economic, e.g SAP, etc.
d.Processes of military disengagement.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to: 
i.   evaluate the reasons given for military intervention; 
ii.  asses the achievements of military rule; 
iii. determine the conditions that necessitated withdrawal from

PARTIII: 
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
NIGERIA AND THE INTERVENTIONAL COMMUNITY
1. Foreign Policy:
a. Definition, purpose, determining factors;
b. Nigerian foreign policy;
i.  Relations with major powers;
ii. Relations with developing countries.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i.   identify the major objectives of Nigerian foreign policy;
ii.  analyse Nigeria's aligned posture;


TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
2.  Relations    with   African Countries:
a.  Africaas "centre   piece"- guiding principles, implementation and implications;
b.  NEPAD - origin, objectives and implications.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i.  evaluate the role of Nigeria in continental affairs;
ii. assess the role of NEPAD in developing Africa.


TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
3.  Nigeria in International organizations
a.  The United Nations;
b.  The Commonwealth;
c.  The organization of African unity;
d.  The African Union;
e.  The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS);
f.   The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i.  analyse the dynamics of Nigeria's involvement in international organizations;
ii. assess their contribution to the development of Nigeria.

PART IV: INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS:
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
1.   International organizations:
a.   ECOWAS;
b.   OAU, AU;
c.   Commonwealth;
d.   UNO;
e.   OPEC;
- Origin, objectives, structure, functions, achievements, problems and prospects of these organizations.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i.  identify international organizations;
ii. assess  the role of these organizations in world affairs.


RECOMMENDED TEXTS
Adigwe. F (1985) Essentials of Government for West Africa, Ibadan:   University Press Pic.
Anifowose,  R and  Enemuo,  F.  C (eds)(1999) Elements of Politics,  Lagos; Malthouse Press Limited.
Appadorai, A. (1978) The substance of politics, London: Oxford University Press.
Ball, A. R. (1983) Modern Politics and Government, London: macmillan.
Ikein, A. A. (1990) The impact of Oil on a Developing Country; The case of Nigeria, Ibadan; Evans.
Ofoegbu, R.  (1977)  Government for the Certificate Year, London: George Allen and Unwin.
Ojiako, J. O. (1981) Nigeria Yesterday, oday and?   Onitsha Africana Educational Publishers (Nig.) Ltd.
Olawale, J. B (1987) New Topics on Ordary Level government, Ilesha: Jola publishing.
Omolewa, M. (1991) A certificate History of Nigeria, Ibadan: Longman.
Oyediran, O. Nwosu, H., Takaya, B., Anifowoshe, R., Femi, B., Godwill, O. and Adigun, A. (1990) Government for Senior Secondary Schools, Books 1, 2 and 3 Ibadan: Longman.
Oyeneye, I., Onyenwenu, M. and Olusunde, B. E. (2000) Round-up Government for Senior Secondary School Certifcate Examination: A complete Guide, Ibadan: Longman.
Oyovbaire, S., Oguna, A. E. C, amucheazi, E. C, Coker, H. o. and Oshuntuyi, O. (2001) Countdown to senior Secondary Certifcate Examination: Government Ibadan: Evans.
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