GOVERNMENT GENERAL OBJECTIVES The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) is to prepare the candidates for the Board's examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the objectives of the course in Government. These objectives are to: i. appreciate the meaning of government; ii. analyse the framework and specify the institutions of government; iii. explain the concept of citizenship and define the duties and obligations of a citizen; iv. appreciate the process of political development; v. evaluate the political development and problems of governance in Nigeria; vi. assess the role of Nigeria as a member of the international community and the workings of international organizations TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 1.Basic concepts in government a.Power, Right, Legitimacy, Authority, Sovereignty: b. Society, State, nation, Nation- State; c. Political Processes Political Socialization, Political Participation, Political Culture. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. identify the fundamental concepts in governance; ii. analyse various political processes; TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 2.Forms of Government: Monarchy, Aristocracy, Oligarchy, Autocracy, Republic, Democracy- definitions, features, merits and demerits. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. distinguish between different forms of government. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 3.Arms of Government: a.The Legislature - types, structure, functions, powers; b.The executive - types and functions, powers; c.The Judiciary - functions, OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. identify the duties and obligations of the various arms of government and their agencies; ii. relate each arm to its function. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 4.Structures of Government: Unitary, Federal, Confederal - features, reasons for adoption, merits and demerits. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. compare the various political structures of governance. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 5.Systems of Governance: Presidential, Parliamentary and Monarchical. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. distinguish between the different systems of governance. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 4.Political Ideologies: Communalism, Feudalism, Capitalism, Socialism, Fascism, Communism OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. differentiate between the major political ideologies; ii. contrast modes of production, TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 7. Constitution Written, Unwritten, Rigid and Flexible. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. compare the nature of constitutions TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 8.Principles of Democratic Government: Ethics and accountability in Public Office separation of power/checks and balances, individual and Collective Responsibility Constitutionalism, Rule of Law. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. identify the principles of democratic government; ii. determine the application of these principles; TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 9.Processes of Legislation: Legislative Enactment - acts, edicts, delegated legislation, decrees. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. analyse the processes involved in the making of laws. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 9.Citizenship: i. Meaning, types ii. Citizenship rights; iii. Duties and obligations of citizens OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. differentiate between the various types of citizenship; ii. specify the rights and responsibilities of a citizen. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 11. The Electoral Process: Franchise, Election, Electoral System, Electoral Commission OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. analyse the various electoral processes. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 12. Party Systems: i. Definition, function and types ii. Political parties - Definition, Organization, functions. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. distinguish between types of party system; ii. assess the role of political parties TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 13.Pressure Groups: Definition, types, functions and modes of operation. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. distinguish between pressure groups and political parties TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 14.Public Opinion: Meaning, functions and measurement. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. assess the function of public opinion; ii. compare methods of assessing public opinion. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 15. The Civil service: Definition, Characteristics, functions, structure, control and problems. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. analyse the significance of civil service,in governance. PART II TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA 1.Pre - colonial Polities: Sarauta, Emirate, Tiv, Igbo, Yoruba - structure/system of governance OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. Compare pre-colonial systems of governance TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 2.Imperialist Penetration: a.The British process of acquisition - trade, missionary activities, company rule, crown colony, protectorate; b.The British colonial administrative policy direct and indirect rule; c.Impact of British colonial rule economic, political, socio-cultural; d.Comparison of British and French Colonial administration. OBJECTIVES i. Compare pre-colonial systems of governance Candidates should be able to: i. trace the processes of imperialist penetration; ii. assess the impact of British policies; iii. distinguish between British and French colonial practices. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 3.Process of Decolonization a.Nationalist Movements - meaning, emergence, goals, strategies, nationalist leaders - Herbert Macaulay, Nnamdi Azikiwe, Obafemi Awolowo,Ahmadu Bello and others; emergence of nationalist parties b.Influence of Exteral factors; c.Constitutional development -the Clifford (1922, Richards (1946), Macpherson (1951), Lyttelton (1954) and Independence (I960) constitutions. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. evaluate the process of decolonization; ii. assess the roles of nationalist leaders and parties; iii. assess the impact of external forces and ideas (Pan-Africanism, Back - to - Africa Movements, etc), iv. Compare the various constitutional developments. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 4.Post-independence Constitutions 1963, 1979, 1989 and 1999 -characteristics and shortcomings OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. assess the workings of the various constitutions. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 5.Institutions of Government in the Post - Independence period; The legislature, the executive and the Judiciary - structure, functions and workings OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i.evaluate the operations of the arms of government and their agencies, e.g the civil service, armed forces, police, courts and others. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 5.Public Commissions Established by the 1979 and Subsequent Constitutions: The Civil service Commission, the Public Complaints Commission, Electoral Commissions and others objectives and functions. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. evaluate the operations of public commissioners; ii. assess the problems of, and constraints on iii. the public commissions. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 7.Political parties in the Post- Independence period: Political parties party politics First, second, third and fourth Republics. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. Contrast political process in the republics. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 8. The structure and Workings of Nigerian Federalism: a. Rationale for a Federal System b. Tiers of government and their relationship c. Creation of States - 1963, 1967, 1976, 1987, 1991, 1996; d. Problems of Nigerian Federalism - census, revenue allocation, conflicts etc. solutions e. g. Federal character, etc. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. examine the workings of Nigerian federalism;. ii. identify its problems; iii. evaluate the corrective measure adopted. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 10.Local Government: a.Localgovernment administration prior to 1976; b.Features of Local Government reforms (1976, 1989) - structure, functions, finance and inter-governmental relation; c.Traditional rulers and local governments. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. trace the evolution and structure of local government; ii. identify the major problems faced by local governments. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 11.The military in Nigerian Politics a.Factors that led to military intervention; b.Structure of military regimes; c.Impact of military rule - political, e. g state creation etc. economic, e.g SAP, etc. d.Processes of military disengagement. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. evaluate the reasons given for military intervention; ii. asses the achievements of military rule; iii. determine the conditions that necessitated withdrawal from PARTIII: TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES NIGERIA AND THE INTERVENTIONAL COMMUNITY 1. Foreign Policy: a. Definition, purpose, determining factors; b. Nigerian foreign policy; i. Relations with major powers; ii. Relations with developing countries. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. identify the major objectives of Nigerian foreign policy; ii. analyse Nigeria's aligned posture; TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 2. Relations with African Countries: a. Africaas "centre piece"- guiding principles, implementation and implications; b. NEPAD - origin, objectives and implications. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. evaluate the role of Nigeria in continental affairs; ii. assess the role of NEPAD in developing Africa. TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 3. Nigeria in International organizations a. The United Nations; b. The Commonwealth; c. The organization of African unity; d. The African Union; e. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS); f. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. analyse the dynamics of Nigeria's involvement in international organizations; ii. assess their contribution to the development of Nigeria. PART IV: INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES 1. International organizations: a. ECOWAS; b. OAU, AU; c. Commonwealth; d. UNO; e. OPEC; - Origin, objectives, structure, functions, achievements, problems and prospects of these organizations. OBJECTIVES Candidates should be able to: i. identify international organizations; ii. assess the role of these organizations in world affairs. RECOMMENDED TEXTS Adigwe. F (1985) Essentials of Government for West Africa, Ibadan: University Press Pic. Anifowose, R and Enemuo, F. C (eds)(1999) Elements of Politics, Lagos; Malthouse Press Limited. Appadorai, A. (1978) The substance of politics, London: Oxford University Press. Ball, A. R. (1983) Modern Politics and Government, London: macmillan. Ikein, A. A. (1990) The impact of Oil on a Developing Country; The case of Nigeria, Ibadan; Evans. Ofoegbu, R. (1977) Government for the Certificate Year, London: George Allen and Unwin. Ojiako, J. O. (1981) Nigeria Yesterday, oday and? Onitsha Africana Educational Publishers (Nig.) Ltd. Olawale, J. B (1987) New Topics on Ordary Level government, Ilesha: Jola publishing. Omolewa, M. (1991) A certificate History of Nigeria, Ibadan: Longman. Oyediran, O. Nwosu, H., Takaya, B., Anifowoshe, R., Femi, B., Godwill, O. and Adigun, A. (1990) Government for Senior Secondary Schools, Books 1, 2 and 3 Ibadan: Longman. Oyeneye, I., Onyenwenu, M. and Olusunde, B. E. (2000) Round-up Government for Senior Secondary School Certifcate Examination: A complete Guide, Ibadan: Longman. Oyovbaire, S., Oguna, A. E. C, amucheazi, E. C, Coker, H. o. and Oshuntuyi, O. (2001) Countdown to senior Secondary Certifcate Examination: Government Ibadan: Evans.