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MATHEMATICS GENERAL OBJECTIVES
Mathematics
 
The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Mathematics is to prepare the candidates for the Board's examination. It is designed to test the achievement of the course objectives, which are to:
acquire computational and manipulative skills;
develop precise, logical and formal reasoning skills;
apply mathematical concepts to resolve issues in daily living;
This syllabus is divided into five sections:
 Number and Numeration.
Algebra
Geometry/Trigonometry.
Calculus
Statistics

DETAILED SYLLABUS
SECTION I: NUMBER AND NUMERATION.

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
1.    Number bases:
(a) Operations in different number bases from 2 to 10;
(b) Conversion from one base to another including fractionalparts.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
Perform   four   basic   operations' (x,+,-,÷)
ii.      Convert one base to another.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 
2.  Fractions, Decimals,   Approximations and Percentages:
(a) Fractions and decimals
(b) Significant figures
(c) Decimal places  
(d) Percentage errors
(e) Simple interest
(f) Profit and loss per cent
(g) Ratio, proportion and rate

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. Perform basic operations (x,+,-, ÷) on fractions and decimals;
ii.Express  to  specified  number of significant   figures   and decimal   places.
iii.Calculate simple interest, profit and loss per cent, ratio proportion and rate.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 
3. Indices, Logarithms and Surds:
(a) Laws of indices
(b) Standard form
(c) Laws of logarithm
(d) Logarithm of any positive number to a given base,
(e) Change of bases in logarithm and application.
(f) Relationship between indices and logarithm
(g) Surds

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i. Apply the laws of indices in calculation;
ii. Establish the relationship between indices and logarithms in solving problems;
iii. Solve problems in different bases in logarithms.
iv. Simplify and rationalize surds.
v  Perform basic operation on syrds

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 
4. Sets
  (a) Types of sets
  (b) Algebra of sets
  (c) Venn diagrams and their

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i.    Identify types of sets, i.e empty, universal, compliments, subsets, finite, infinite and disjoint sets;
ii.   Solve set problems using symbol;
iii.  Use Venn  diagrams  to  solve problems involving not more than 3 sets.

SECTION II: ALGEBRA
TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 
i. Polynomials
(a) Change of subject of formula
(b) Factor and remainder theorems
(c) Factorization   of polynomials of degree not exceeding 3.
(d) Multiplication and division of polynomials
(e) Roots of polynomials not exceeding degree 3
(f) Simultaneous equations including one linear, one quadratic
(g) Graphs of polynomials of degree not greater than 3

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

 i.    Find the subject of the formula of a  given equation;
 ii.   Apply factor and remainder theorem to factorize a given expression;
iii.   Multiply and divide polynomials of degree not more than 3;
iv.   Factorize by regrouping difference of two squares, perfect squares, etc.
v.    Solve simultaneous equations - one linear, one quadratic;
vi.   Interpret   graphs   of   polynomials including application to maximum and minimum values.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 
2. Variation
(a) Direct
(b) Inverse.
(c) Joint
(d) Partial
(e) Percentage increase and decrease.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i.    Solve  problems  involving direct, inverse, joint and partial variations
ii.   Solve problems on percentage  increase and decrease in variation.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 
3. Inequalities:
(a) Analytical and graphical solutions of linear inequalities.
(b) Quadratic inequalities with integral roots only.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

Solve problems on linear and quadratic Inequalities both analytically and graphically
TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 
4. Progression:
(a) Nth term of a progression
(b) Sum of  A. P. and G. P.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i.   Determine the nth term of a progression;
ii.   Compute the sum of A. P. and G.P;
iii.  Sum to infinity a given G.P

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 
5. Binary Operations:
(a) Properties of closure, commutativity, associativity  and distributivity.
(b) Identity and inverse elements

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i.   Solve problems involving closure, commutativity, associativity and distributivity;
ii.   Solve problems  involving  identity and inverse elements.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 
6. Matrices and Determinants:

(a) Algebra of matrices not exceeding 3x3.
(b) Determinants of matrices not  exceeding 3x3.
(c) Inverses of 2 x 2 matrices [excluding  quadratic and higher degree  equations.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i.   Perform basic operations  (x,+, ÷,-) on  matrices;
ii.   Calculate determinants;
iii.  Compute inverses of 2 x 2 matrices


SECTION III: GEOMETRIC AND TRIGONOMETRY

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 
1.  Euclidean Geometry:

(a)  Angles and lines
(b)  Polygon; triangles, quadrilaterals  and general polygon.
(c)  Circles, angle properties, cyclic, quadr ilaterals and  interesting chords.
(d)  Construction.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i.   Identify various types of lines and angles;
ii.  Solve problems involving polygons;
iii. Calculate  angles  using   circle
iii. theorems; 
iv. Identify construction procedures of special angles, e.g. 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, 90° etc.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 
2.   Mensuration:
(a)  Lengths and areas of plane  geometrical figures.
(b)   Length s of arcs and chords of a circle.
(c)  Areas of sectors and segments of  circle. 
(d)  Surface areas and volumes of simple solids and composite   figures. 
(e)  The earth as a sphere, longitudes  and latitudes.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i.   Calculate the perimeters and areas of triangles, quadrilaterals, circles and composite figures;
ii.   Find the length of an arc. a chord and areas of sectors and segments of circles; 
iii.  Calculate total surface areas and volumes  of cuboids,  cylinders. Cones, pyramids, prisms, sphere  and composite figures;
iv.   Determine the distance between two points on the earth's surface.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 
3.Loci:
Locus in 2 dimensions based on geometric principles relating to lines and curves.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to: 

Identify and interpret loci relating to parallel lines, perpendicular bisectors angle bisectors and circles.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 
4.Coordinate Geometry:
Midpoint and gradient of a line segment.
Distance between two points.
Parallel and perpendicular lines
Equations of straight lines.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
 i.  Determine the midpoint and gradient of a line segment; 
ii.   Find distance between two points; 
iii.  Identify conditions for parallelism and perpendicularity. 
iv.  Find the equation of a line in the  two-point form, point-slope form, slope   intercept   form  and  the general form.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 
5.   Trigonometry
Trigonometric ratios of angels.
Angles, of elevation and  depression and bearing.
Areas and solutions of triangle 
Graphs of sine and cosine
Sine and cosine formulae.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i.  Calculate  the   sine,   cosine   and tangent of angles  between - 360°=  0=360°; 
ii. Apply those special angles, e.g. 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, 90°,  135° to solve  simple  problems  in trigonometry. 
iii. Solve problems involving angles of elevation and depression and bearing; 
iv. Apply trigonometric formulae to find areas of triangles; 
v. Solve problems involving sine and cosine graphs.

SECTION IV: CALCULUS
TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 
I. Differentiation:

limit of a function;
differentiation of explicit  algebraic and simple trigonometric functions -sine, cosine and tangent

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. Find the limit of a function
ii. Differentiate explicit algebraic and simple trigonometric functions

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 
2. Application of differentiation:
(a)  rate of change
(b) maxima and minima

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

Solve problems involving applications of rate of change, maxima and minima.
TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 
1. Integration:

(a)  integration of explicit algebraic and simple trigonometric functions.
(b) Area under the curve.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i.   Solve  problems  of integration -  involving algebraic and simple trigonometric functions;
ii.   Calculate area under the curve (simple  cases only).

SECTION V: STATISTICS
TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 
1. Representation of data:

(a) Frequency distribution  
(b) Histogram, bar chat and pie chart

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be to: 

i. Identify and interpret frequency distribution tables; 
ii. Interprete  information on histogram, bar  chat and pie chart

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 

2. Measures of Location:

(a)  Mean, mode  and  median  of  grouped and ungrouped data (simple cases only) – 
(b)  Cumulative frequency.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i.  Calculate the mean, mode and median of ungrouped and grouped data (simple cases only) 
ii.  Use or give to find the median quartiles and percentiles.

TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 
3. Measures of Dispersion:
Range, mean deviation, variance and standard deviation.

OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to: 

Calculate the range, mean deviation, variance and standard deviation of grouped and ungrouped data
TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 
4. Permutation and Combination

OBJECTIVES 
Candidates should be able to: 

Solve  simple  problems  involving permutation and combination.
TOPIC/CONTENTS/NOTES 
5. Probability

OBJECTIVES 
Candidates should be able to:

Solve simple problems in probability including addition and multiplication).

Mathematics 
RECOMMENDED TEXTS
Adelodun A. A (2000) Distinction in Mathematics: Comprehensive Revision Text, (3rd Edition) Ado-Ekiti: FNPL.
Anyebe, J. A. B (1998) Basic Mathematics for Senior Secondary Schools and Remedial Students in Higher Institutions, Lagos: Kenny Moore.
Channon, J. B. Smith, A. M (2001) New General Mathematics for West Africa SSS1 to 3, Lagos: Longman.
David -Osuagwu, M. et al (2000) New School Mathematics for Senior Secondary Schools, Onitsha: Africana - FIRST Publishers.
Egbe. E et al (2000) Further Mathematics, Onitsha: Africana -FIRST Publishers

Ibude, S. O. et al (2003) Algebra and Calculus for Schools and Colleges: LINCEL Publishers.
Tuttub - Adegun M. R. et al (1997), Further Mathematics Project Books 1 to 3, Ibadan; NPS Educational
Oloworise Femi John (2009) Complete Mathematics, Jolem publishers, Kaduna
Paul Sisson (2003) College algebra, Hawks Publishing
10.Earl W. Swokowski Jeffery A. Cole (2007) Algebra and trigometry with analytic geometry, Thompson Books/Cole
11 .R. Smedley and G. Wiseman (2001) Intoducing pure Mathematics Sedition, Oxford Univ. Press
12. A. Godman and J. F. Talbert (2005) Additional Mathematics Pure and applied, Longman Publishers
13. Murrey R. Spiegel and Lary J. Stephens (1998) Schaum's outline series
Third edition, McGrew Hill, U.S.A
Quadratic Equation:
Ax2 + Bx + C = 0
A =
B =
C =
X1 =
X2 =

Credit: Samuel George

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